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Global Trends and Forecasting
Defense and Security
Development of Korean Traditional weapons
Analysis of Modern Weapon Systems
Aviation, air defense weapons
Object identification of device

The object can’t be identified only with the device operated according to the reflection of radio wave like radar in combat. In fact, it is impossible to compare the flight course, as the combat condition is mobile.

The object identification device that the aircraft equips is a kind of radar principally and also is the device to emit the responding signal after the aircraft received the question signal through inner device. Two types of identification devices are used in the free world.

Firstly, One becomes known as IFF of Mark-X type. It calls the device of the aircraft in the ground and the aircraft returns the corresponding signal pulse as the previous fixed signal for the question pulse signal of device of the aircraft automatically. Then, as the ground device rotates similar with the searching radar, our aircraft is identified when the fixed identification symbol is indicated in the estimation value of object relevant on the radarscope if receiving this signal. The ground device antenna for IFF is assembled in the reflector of searching radar and the identification is as four following type. Firstly, it is the first type and the basic object identification type. It is set up by this method on the ground and in the air. The air device sends the responding signal for the question signal from the ground and the position of the relevant aircraft is indicated on the radarscope of ground. Secondly, when the ground type and air type coincide, the position of our aircraft is indicated on the ground radarscope. Thirdly, It is the urgent type and when the switch is operated on the ground, the position of the relevant object is indicated to four lines on the scope at the same time to emit the emergency signal.

The selection identification type is the type that the identification capacity for the specific aircraft out of our aircrafts is improved and at the same time, the secrecy is reinforced in comparison with Mark-X type.

Now AN/ASQ-151 system on B-52C type and H type strategy bomber will be considered. It has the capacity to monitor the geographical object under some condition in night and day. It integrated the low-brightness TV camera (LLL TV) and front line monitoring-purpose infrared rays device.

There is the display device indicated the data in the identification device in theair and the necessary data is inputted in this system with the bombing navigation system, gyro system, radio wave altimeter, and geographical evasion radar. The data obtained by the sensor of TV and infrared rays to see the low-brightness TV forming the system in the dark place appeared like the TV screen as one picture. This screen is shown in TV receiver of instrument board in front of two pilots of pilot and copilot, navigator, radar manipulation personnel.

Various necessary data and symbol for bombing or navigation, and other flight are shown collectively in the receiver. In addition, the graduation of the left part of screen and index moved to top and bottom according to the graduation play the role of the eye of system and indicates the level of sensor. The movement of horizontal direction of TV camera or infrared rays sensor indicates the horizontal direction to the same direction as up-and-down direction by 15ºin case of use of the short-distance measurement type and 45º in case of use of the long-distance measurement type. In addition, the number indicated in the central top part of the screen shows what second to approach the bombing point within by second unit as Time-To- Time indicator.

The next thing is the symbol system indicated the posture of aircraft. Two horizontal lines and one vertical line indicate the degree of pitching and roaring with the aircraft as the base line. The posture of aircraft is shown in the system by 85º to up-and-down for pitching and 55º to left-and-right for roaring.

Changing the lens with the switch can change this picture to the wide vision and narrow vision. The wide scenery is seen in case of the former and the detailed part can be observed as its center is expanded in case of the latter. This ground monitoring system can make the secure and certain low-altitude flight in operating by integrating with the geographical evasion radar. Besides, the air is controlled automatically for maintaining the best condition of TV camera and reception part of infrared rays and the front window is washed with the washing liquid for raising the transparency.

 

Aircraft ground monitoring system

With development of anti-air missile and high-functioning of altitude interception fighter, the strategic bomber should attempt the low-altitude invasion. The maximum threat as invasion aircraft is geography rather than opponent’s anti-air firearms. In this way, the biggest threat as invasion aircraft is geography itself not opponent’s anti-air firearms. In other words, identification, evasion and the use of geography become the major factor for achievement of goal.

For this purpose, there is electronic, airport monitoring device for four-season geography identification it helps to identify real geography with naked eyes unlike geographic evasion radar. We can see AN /ASQ-151 system installed in the B-52C-type and H-type strategy bomber. There are projecting part looking like pupil in the pilot’s seat and both sides of the B-52. These function as eyes, the monitoring part of the system. This e sensor has capacity to identify the geography under any condition day and night. This is the integrated device of low-brightness TV camera (LLL TV) and front line monitoring infrared ray device. In the projection on the left of the nose, multi-direction low-brightness TV camera operates; this camera system is AN/AVQ-22-direction manipulation TV device. There is AN/AAQ-151 in which the front line monitoring infrared rays device sensor in the projection on the right of the nose. It could trace object by search front line at any direction.

The data display device on the board displays information and data obtained from these sensors on the screen, and bombing navigation system, gyro system, radio wave altimeter, geographic evasion radar work together to collect intelligence effectively. The TV that make the low-brightness TV could be seen in darkness and infrared ray sensor are composed of the system and delivers the information on screen like TV monitor. This intelligence is to be seen in the instrument panel in front of pilot, copilot, navigator and radar operator.

On this panel various intelligence and signs that are necessary for bombing or navigation other flight issues. In addition, the scale on the left below of the screen and the index moving according to the scale are the parts pertinent to eyes of the system, indicating to what extent sensor face up and down. The scale displaying the horizontal movement, in other word, the direction of TV camera or infrared rays shows horizontal direction in same direction with vertical direction, to 15 ° left and right in case using the short-distance measurement type, to 45° left and right in case using the long-distance measurement type making the center line 0°. And the number displayed on upper center of the screen, the Time-To-Godis player, indicate the left time to reach the bombing spot in second unit.

In other words, the left time from 200 second before the arrival in planned sky is counted in second. And the aviation azimuth standard displayer, installed just under the Time-To-Go displayer, allows knowing how the angle of the nose gets out of its right course with the index movement. The 13 cross lines on right of the screen indicate ground altitude of the aircraft in feet measured with radio wave altimeter. AN/APN-150(V) radio wave altimeter system provides this information about altitude between ground surface and the aircraft. The error of altitude id 10 feet (±), and if the aircraft flies below the altitude the pilot fixed, the altitude index gives warning in interval of 3 times a second .

The two horizontal lines and one vertical line at the center of the screen, the Symbol system of standard lines of horizontal and vertical line, are to indicate pitching and rolling. The posture of aircraft is showed to vertical 85° in pitching and horizontal 55° in rolling in this system.

This image can be transferred from wide view to narrow view by changing lens with switch. The former shows wide range view and the latter allows identifying detailed part in expanded core. Integrated application of this ground monitoring system and geographic evasion radar ensures secure and reliable low-altitude flight. To maintain the reception part of TV camera and infrared rays in the most suitable condition, the auto air control system is applied and the front window is to be washed with washer liquid the raise transparency.

Air-force combat attacker
Various kinds of aircraft were used in operations in the Vietnamese War, Middle East War, India-Pakistan War, and the recent Gulf War. With the development of strategic missiles and reconnaissance satellites, manned bombers have played a role in strategic attack power and strategic reconnaissance planes are now considered important. Each country has its own strategies and aircraft according to the conditions of its national defense.

However, the world’s aircraft can be classified into aircraft of the Eastern nations, which have Russian model aircraft, and Western nations, which have aircraft mainly from the U.S. and aircraft made in France based on independent national defense. On the other hand, in terms of use, multi-purpose and high-performance fighters and attackers are capable of precision attack, while bombers serve as the platform of strategic and tactical missiles. In addition, as low-altitude and high-speed flight becomes common, and as anti-air missiles are developed, ECM and ECCM capacity are regarded as aircraft requirements.

Future aircraft will show great advancements in combat capacity by realizing high precision loading electronic equipment and PGM loading weapons, as well as improvement in mobility through the introduction of light-weighting technology based on CCV technology or complex materials. Since the 1990s, the practical use of stealth in the concept of the variable-cycle engine has also revolutionized the aspect of combat.

It is in these terms that this section will discuss the trend of American aviation combat power development. Although American and Russian strategic nuclear strategy and general-purpose forces strike a balance, even in terms of naval power and strategic nuclear strategy, Russia has quantitative superiority over the U.S. due to their national defense expenditures which varied greatly for about 10 years in the 1970s. In response to this, the U.S. developed and produced a B-1 strategic bomber to use in connection with the manned bomber, to which stealth technology was applied, and also developed the C-X strategic transport aircraftf or transport of Rapid Deployment Forces to cope with situations of the Southwest Asian region.

In the field of bombers, the test and evaluation program of air launch cruise missiles (ALCM) loaded onto B-52s was completed in 1982, and since 1983, as the first equipment of ALCM /B-52G was implemented, ALCMs have been mass-produced. In addition, in terms of fighters and attackers, F-14, F-15, F-16, and A-10II were converted to manipulators. The first AV-8BII aircraft, successor to AV-8A vertical landing and takeoff aircraft, succeeded in making a maiden flight at the end of 1981, and the up-to-date F-18 aircraft were mass-produced. Lockheed TR-1 aircraft, successor to U-2 reconnaissance aircraft, were delivered to the U.S. Airforce and deployed in England to reinforce the monitoring system of the NATO area.  

The U.S. Airforce replaced F-4 aircraft with F-15 and F-16, and A-10. In 1982, the U.S. Airforce replaced two F-4 aircraft troops (72 aircraft) stationed in Europe with F-16, F-4D (48 aircraft) stationed in the Pacific Ocean with F-16, and two F-4E troops (40 aircraft) stationed in Alaska with F-15C/D and A-10, respectively. They dramatically reinforced ground attack by deploying an additional A-10 troop in the Korean Peninsula. The Strategic Airforce also deployed EF-111A, a modified F-111A.

In terms of the mission of these newly replaced aircraft, F-16 took charge of air defense and ground attack A-10 took charge of adjacent aviation support F-111 took charge of strategic bombing and all-weather intercepting attack; and F-4 took charge of multi-purpose defense and control. In particular, since the first F-16 aircraft was delivered to the U.S. Airforce in August 1978, most of the Strategic Airforce was completely provided with F-16until 1990. F-16s with PSP, most of which are stationed in foreign bases, have shown great improvement in the capacities of ECCM for night and bad-weather operations and air-to-ground capture.

BADGE, new air defense system

In order to ensure the reactive means capable of early detection and interception of an enemy plane flying at speeds of over Mach 2, it is necessary to have sufficient usable time. The system uses an early warning deployed at a high altitude to detect a distant enemy plane that cannot be captured by ground radar and to detect an enemy plane flying at a low altitude through lower monitoring The detection of enemy aircraft is immediately reported to the Command Division. On receipt of such report, computer intelligence processing is required. Once any data related to locating, identifying, object allocation, course and method of interception is processed by the computer and the results are displayed on the screen, man makes the final decision.

However, when telecommunication facilities and radar command posts are destroyed, even if all other functions are still in operation, an air defense organizationis paralyzed, and it is necessary to take air defense measures and preliminary steps. This air defense system is called an automatic warning task organization or strategic air defense weapon control organization. This organization is automatically operated by the computer into which aviation bases, anti-air missile bases and command posts are integrated in the complete telecommunications network, and designed to show maximum command capacity with minimum time loss. Manipulation personnel within the command post contact each other to exchange intelligence by pressing buttons on a console instead of speaking.

Intelligence related to the course of an enemy plane, flight path, status display, friend-foe interrelation, the remaining fuel of an enemy plane, allocation of intercept weapon, etc. is exchanged through the console using signals and numbers. In short, the purpose of BADGE is to exactly intercept multipletargets at an early stage. As current aircraft cannot provide complete data processing, it is necessary to ensure that the detection, identification and pursuit of an air object, as well as intelligence processing, interception instruction control, and achievement of the objective, are realized within the shortest time. This is done by incorporating the ‘trinity’ functions of the economic system, based on digital technology, interceptors, and ground-to-air missiles.

When the radar site warns of an approaching unidentified flying object, even when the aircraft is too distant to be captured by ground radar, the object can be identified by using an early warning system capable of instantly determining the altitude, speed and defense of the object, and of identifying friend-foe aircraft. Data for reacting to such objects is immediately transferred to the interceptor or missiles for air defense (Nike or Hawk). Therefore, a series of maneuvers, including guidance for approaching an enemy plane, attack period and return, are supported. In short, the fighter can approach an enemy plane to attack under the guidance of its own radar in spite of the bad weather.

In this connection, the front warning radar site with RTS-II, an auto pursuit system enhanced with a data connection system, is capable of performing its functions in spite of bad weather or ‘jamming.’ However, it is very difficult to automatically detect an object. In other words, as the radar absorbs reflections from geography or sea waves as well as its own signals and the electric noise of the receiver, it is difficult to select a true object.

Next is the process of identifying the reflected radio wave of a flying object. As aircraft fly at a fixed speed and show regular behavioral patterns even when flying at different speeds, any aircraft can be identified within the forecast scope by remembering tracked data and comparing the position data gained when the antenna rotates. In short, the difference in position noted by antenna rotation allows for calculation of the speed and direction of an object, and the next rotation of the antenna enables calculation of the expected position of an object. Therefore, if an object appears at the expected place based on such calculation, it can be manipulated by an auto-pursuit method in good condition.

Next is the process of identifying the reflected radio wave of a flying object. As aircraft fly at a fixed speed and show regular behavioral patterns even when flying at different speeds, any aircraft can be identified within the forecast scope by remembering tracked data and comparing the position data gained when the antenna rotates. In short, the difference in position noted by antenna rotation allows for calculation of the speed and direction of an object, and the next rotation of the antenna enables calculation of the expected position of an object. Therefore, if an object appears at the expected place based on such calculation, it can be manipulated by an auto-pursuit method in good condition.